Due to its favourable climate, Queensland is able to support a wide range of plant based industries. Queensland allows for extensive forestry and the farming of fruit, vegetables and nuts as well as grains, sugarcane and cotton. The State’s plant industries are heavily supported by research and development (R&D) which impacts heavily on the efficiency of the systems and the overall value of the industry. Moreover, R&D in this area demonstrates best practice industry techniques, and often helps address domestic and international market problems and engage emerging opportunities. In order to make these systems more profitable and sustainable, and increase global partnerships and collaborations, gene technologies are being heavily researched. Increasingly, high yield and resistant crops are able to produce more with less resource consumption. The context of Queensland’s plant industry is changing and expanding, with new opportunities for R&D emerging – such as genetically modified cotton and drought resistant varieties of sorghum and barley.